1. Pi-nyi=lki ka yangka walya-ngka=lku kuja-ka + walya-ngka-rlu=lku act on-NPast=now Pres that ground-Loc=now Rel-Pres ground-Loc-Erg=now pi-nyi, kankarla-rra-jangka-rlu, act on-NPast up-away-from-Erg Then it kills them down on the ground, after coming down from the sky.Note: The Ergative on the Locative serves to indicate that the subject is in the walya location: without the Ergative the location could be just that of the object and not the subject. Similarly, in kankarla-rra-jangka-rlu the Ergative indicates that the subject of the clause is kankarla-rra-jangka, i.e. 'one from above'. Integrating these words into a meaningful sentence requires a change of location of the subject, i.e. a downward movement.
2. kankarlu-rlu-jala ka nguru-wana-rlu nya-nyi; up-Erg-of course Pres sky-Perl-Erg see-NPast It sees some animal when it is up overhead in the sky.Note: The Perlative (or general locative) -wana on nguru 'sky, area' contrasts with the regular Locative -ngka ~ -rla: -wana means there is positive dimensionality in the coincidence of the Figure (here, the eaglehawk) and the Ground (here, the sky). An obvious interpretation is that the path of the eaglehawk's flight covers an area of sky over time.
3. kula-lpa-rla wuruly-parnka-yarla warlawurru-ku, marlu=rlangu, not-Imperf-3Dat seclusion-run-Irr eaglehawk-Dat 'roo=for example An animal like a kangaroo cannot run away from the Wedge-tailed Eagle. 4. kankarlu-mparra-rlu ka wajirli pi-nyi, up-across-Erg Pres chase act on-NPast It chases it overheadNotes: The suffix -mparra occurs only on a compass direction or vertical orientation; historically it looks like it is from *-mpa-rra but the meaning 'across, side' is closer to the modern directional enclitic =mpa. It includes a meaning of positive dimensionality in the appearance of the Figure (here, the eaglehawk) from the viewpoint (here unspecified, but presumably the generic human observer on the ground). The coverb wajili 'fast movement' is also a nominal 'chase'; as a coverb with pi-nyi it means 'ERG give chase to ABS'.
5. kaninja-rra-kari=lki ka-rla + panti-rninja-ku-ngarnti jangkardu down-away-towards=now Pres-3Dat pierce-Infin-Purp-before aggress kaninja-rra-kari-jarri-ø. down-away-towards-become-NPast and then it swoops down to attack and stab it in its talons.Notes: N-kari '(facing) in direction of N', where N can only be kaninja-rra 'down' or kankarla-rra 'up'; contrast N-purda 'N-wards' which occurs on all six cardinals and some other stems (Laughren 1978:9).
yangka warlawurru-piya-rlu=yijala, kuja-ka jayirr.pa=rra-ma-ni, that eaglehawk-like-Erg-still Rel-Pres snatch-away-make-NPast just as the eaglehawk snatches it up (with its feet) 6. Kuja-ka kuyu nga-ni, pi-nja-rla, warlawurru-rlu, Rel-Pres meat eat-Npast act on-Infin-Seq eaglehawk-Erg When it has killed the animal it eats it 7. ngula-ji ka-rla + wita-ku yangka warlawurru-ku ka-nyi that-Top Pres-3Dat small-Dat that eaglehawk-Dat carry-Npast yuwali-kirra=rlangu. Kuyu-ju. nest-Allat=for example meat-Top and then it takes some meat to the little ones, the baby Eagle Hawks in their nest.Note: The verb ka-nyi 'carry' occurs here without a directional enclitic. The possible directional enclitics are -rni 'hither', -rra 'away', -mpa 'across', and -yi 'continuously', and especially the first two commonly occur with ka-nyi 'carry' in the senses of English 'bring' and 'take' respectively. The absence of a directional enclitic here fits with the irrelevance of how the motion of 'carry' relates to any observer's point of view or 'narrative centre', as this is a generic description of eaglehawk behaviour unrelated to other reference points.
Note on context: The immediately preceding part of the description has free translation: "Its feet, those claws are very big and sharp. It is with them than [sic] the Wedge-tailed Eagle stabs itself meat -- like with a spear. It grabs hold of them and doesn't let go."
1. Ngula-jangka=ju yarnka-ja that Jungarrayi, yarnka-ja pina. that-from-Top set out-Past (name) set out-Past back The Jungarrayi from Wawarlja returned to his own home.Note: The simple verb yarnka-mi can occur with and without a Dative argument, associated with two senses distinguished thus in the draft Warlpiri Dictionary. In this textlet the verb occurs only in the first sense (in sentences 1 and 5):
2. warla-rnu-wiyi walku=lku=lpa kiripi-ka-nja-ya-nu=lku, mata=lku. well-now-first nothing-now-Imperf crawl-carry-Infin-go-Past tired-now At first he was walking, but then he became so tired he could only crawl along the ground.Note: The stem of the verb kiripi-ka-nyi 'ABS crawl' is identical in form with (and conjugates the same as) the simple verb ka-nyi 'ERG carry ABS', and is one of a dozen or so compound verbs in ka-nyi which has its subject linked to Absolutive and whose meaning is not clearly a hyponym of 'carry'. The further compounding of the Infinitive V-nja- with the ordinary simple verb ya-ni 'ABS go' follows a regular Warlpiri pattern, with composite meaning 'go V-ing'.
3. Yuka-ja ya-ninja-rla. enter-Past go-Infin-Seq He managed to get to his camp, and went inside.Note: Presumably the character could be said to have crawled inside, but just as this isn't specifically repeated in the Warlpiri, so it is not in the translation.
4. Nya-ngu=lpa-lu Nangala-patu-rlu nyiyakantikanti-rli ngayi see-Past-Imp-333s (name)-many-Erg things-Erg just panu-jarlu-rlu yapa-ngku. manu-very-Erg people-Erg All the Nangala women and the other women looked at him. 5. Yarnka-ja=rni. Ya-nu wurna=lku. Yarnka-ja. set out-Past-hither go-Past travel-now set out-Past He went away again, he went away and stayed away. 6. Kulkurru nguna-ja=rnu ngurra-ngka. middle lie-Past-hither camp-Loc He slept in another place.Note: In the last two sentences the 'hither' enclitic has not been translated, and presumably means the motion was towards where the narrator was, or was placing herself.
Date created: 30 March 1998 Last modified: 2 April 1998 © 1998 David Nash Maintained by: David Nash
Return to Workshop page