Appendix to Nash 1986

Index of Warlpiri suffixes and enclitics

Abbreviations for encoding type of suffix or enclitic:
] ----- ] enclitic
]N ---- ]N forms nouns from nouns (page 22 above)
](N) -- ](N) nominal suffix or enclitic (page 23)
]N ---- ]N,CASE derivational cases (pages 23-4)

using the following category and sub-category abbreviations:
N noun
INF infinitive, verbal noun
V verb
PVB preverb
K kinship noun
D cardinal direction noun (compass points, up, down, nyarrpa, kuja)
CASE Case, semantic case
ARG Argument, grammatical case (Ergative, Dative)
[+N] following N or INF but not following Case or Argument
COMP complementiser [+C] take further Ergative, Dative
    [-C] cannot take further Ergative, Dative

Those variants of suffixes and enclitics with a high vowel due to the rules of vowel assimilation are not given.

This list does not include pronominal enclitics; verb tense/aspect inflections follow.

] ja ] Assertive
]N jangka ]N,CASE Elative of Origin, from, because; special sense: injured from
] jala ] Contrastive, actually
]N jardu ]N in exchange for
]N jarlu ]N very
]N jarra ]N,CASE Dual, two
]N jarri ]V.1 become
]N ji ] Topic, Definite (H,W -ju)
]N ju ] Topic, Definite (W,H -ji)
] juku ] still, yet
]N kangukangu ]N Distributive Proprietive, each having
]N kanjayi ]N as the distance and direction of
]N karda ]COMP[-C] Stative Purposive, Translative
]N kari ]N other, another, one of a pair
]D kari ]D in the direction of
]N kariyinyanu ]N other of same kind
][+N] karra ]COMP[+C] Proximate (some speakers); general contemporaneous (other speakers)
]N karrikarri ]N possessing a little bit of the quality of noun; intensifier (Y), further, more
](N) katu ](N) it would be better
] kirli ] precisely
][+C] ku ]ARG Dative, for, to, in relation to
][+N] ku ]COMP[-C] Purposive
]N kujaku ]COMP[-C] Evitative, Negative Purposive, Admonitive
]INF ku-jaku ]COMP[-C] Evitative, Negative Purposive, Admonitive
] kula ] Contrastive, Concessive, rather
][+N] ku-ngarnti ]COMP[+C] Preparative Purposive
][+N] ku-purda ]COMP[+C] Desiderative Purposive
]N kurlangu ]N,CASE Possessive (cf. -nyangu)
]INF ku-rlangu ]N instrument or place for
]N kurlu ]N,CASE Proprietive, having
]N kurra ]CASE Allative, to, towards
][+N] kurra ]COMP[+C] Objective, Motion Purposive
] lku ] now, then, and then
]K lyka ]N co-initiate
](N) malku ](N) for example, also even
]N malu ]N resident of
]N mani ]V.5 Causative
]N manji ]N same sort as, affective (Y)
]N marntu ]N place with plentiful supply of
]N marri ]N expert hunter of
]N mayamaya ]N family (L)
]K mirnimirni ]N dyadic for initiation-related kinship (cf. -rlangu, -wurduwurdu)
](N) mipa ](N) only (alternate: -mimpa)
]V,PV mpa ] across
]D mparra ]D along the side, across
]D mpayi ]D far (also on kirrirdi 'long, tall')
]K na ]N my
]INF nga ]COMP[-C] Resultative
]N ngayingayi ]N on side, around (on karru, walya)
]DAT,LOC ngarduyu ]N associate of
]N ngarna ]N denizen of
](N) ngarrara ](N) Superlative
]N ngawurrpa ]N denizen of
]N ngirninypa ]N group of (on yaparranji, jilkaja)
]N ngka ]CASE allomorph of -rla
][+C] ngku ]ARG allomorph of -rlu
]D nginti ]D to the side of
]INF ngu ]COMP[-C] Resultative (restricted)
]N ngurlu ]CASE Elative, from
]N nji ]N pejoratively characterised by (only on roots)
] nya ] Emphatic, Focus, Interrogative
]N nyangu ]N Possessive (on on pronouns)
]K nyanu ]N anaphoric possessor
]D nyarra ]D allomorph of -mparra on kurlirra 'south', also on pirnti 'creek bank'
](N) nyayirni ](N) very, really (~ -nyarrirni)
]INF palka ]N one able to, characterised by (W,H) (cf. -parnta)
]DAT palangu ]N possessive suffix, ascending generation kinsman
]INF panu ]N one who engages excessively in (Y)
]N paranyku ]N the one with (?) (on yiri)
]N pardu ]N Diminutive, Definite
]N parnta ]N,CASE pertaining to (more productive in W,H, cf. -kurlu)
]INF parnta ]N one able to, characterised by (cf. -palka)
]N patu ]N,CASE Definite plural, Lesser Plural
](N) pinki ](N) and suchlike
](N) pinangi ](N) only (Y, cf. -puka)
]N pirdi ]N near (on ngapa, warlu, ngurra, kin terms)
]N pirdinypa ]N Definite Specific (~ -purdinypa)
]N piya ]N,CASE like, resembling
](N) puka ](N) only, merely
]K puka ]N bereaved kinsman
]K puraji ]N your
]N puralji ]N beside, -side (on wanta, yama, yuwarli, yapa)
]D purda ]D towards, facing
]DAT purdangka ]N possessive, same generation kinsman
]N purnu ]N family, kin (on nganimpanyangu, nganimpakupalangu)
][+N] puru ]COMP[-C] Concurrent
]N purdinypa ]N Comparative '-er', Superlative '-est' ( ~ —pirdinypa (Y))
]N rla ]CASE Locative, at, in, on (~ -ngka)
][+N] rla ]COMP[-C] Proximate Serial
][+N] rlarni ]COMP[-C] Pure Obviative
][+N] rla-jinta ]COMP[-C] Proximate Reflexive
]N rla-jinta ]CASE Comitative (~ -ngka-jinta)
](N) rlangu ](N) too, also for example, even
]K rlangu ]N dyadic kinship, pair in given relationship
][+C] rlu ]ARG Ergative, Instrumental
][+N] rlu ]COMP[-C] Proximate Volitional (restricted usage)
]V,PV rni ] to here, towards speaker
]D rni ]D hither
]V,PV rra ] away, on
]N rra ]N Greater plural (on determiners only)
]K rra ]N dyadic kinship term between Ego's subsection and another
]D rra ]D towards
] waja ] I say, obviously
]N wana ]CASE Perlative, around, along
]N wanawana ]CASE 1. Perlative 2. in exchange for
]N wangu ]N,CASE Privative, without, not having
][+N] wangu ]COMP[+C] Negative
]N wardingki ]N resident of, associate of
]N warnu ]N,CASE from, alongside
][+N] warnu ]COMP[+C] Resultative, Perfective Relative (also —jangka sometimes)
]N wati ]N,CASE pluralizer -patu
]N,INF witawangu ]N excessive, very
] wiyi ] first, before
] wu ] on a-final shouted exclamation (can even follow AUX)
]N wungu ]N accompanied by (also N) (?)
]K wurduwurdu ]N avoidance anaphoric (cf. -nyanu)
] wurru ] regardless, concerned only with
]V,PV yi ] continuous, still
] yijala ] also

verbal inflexions

1985 David Nash
MIT, 30 December 1985
reformatted 20/10/1991
HTML version 11/10/1999

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Last modified: 21 October 2007, 25 September 2017
Maintained by: David Nash