Warlpiri Topography Classification

  The following list of terms incorporates the "Topography" domain of Introduction to Vocabulary and Domains, also titled Introduction to Warlpiri Vocabulary, compiled by Kenneth L. Hale in 1959. The terms have been recast into standard Warlpiri 

E 	Eastern Warlpiri -- mainly Alekarenge (Warrabri)
W	Willowra
Y	Yuendumu
V1,V2,etc.	verb class (conjugation)
i	intransitive
t	transitive

pirli	1. mountain  2. stone, rock  3. money (= [E] purlu)
pamarrpa	stone, hill, mountain (=payarrpa)
rdingki	gap in mountain ranges
tupulpari	prominent hillock in otherwise level or nearly level country (=rdupulpari)
tupulpari-tupulpari	undulating, hilly country
jupulpari-jupulpari	bumpy -- as of ground
nyuurlpari	hump
yarturlu	large rock, boulder, flat rocky outcrop with no grass (=yaturlu)
yarturlu-yarturlu	rocky country (=yaturlu-yaturlu)
ngarnka	1. ledge, rim  2. pointy hill
wararra	cliff, precipitous mountain-side
puturlu	1. back, spine  2. convex or curved surface of certain wooden implements  3. 'jump-up', 
undulation in the ground

0.2 HOLES IN THE EARTH (other than water-related)
pirnki	cave
parlku [E]	cave
jarrarlpa	1. cave, natural rock shelter, as overhang  2. crack, crevice
rdaku	1. hole in the earth  2. deep  3. flesh wound, sore that resembles a hole
rdakukari-rdakukari	bad holes in the ground -- hence, bumpy
pawala	crack in ground
yulyaly-nguna-mi (iV) [W]	to have cracks in ground -- from tubers

SOIL (not water features)
yarlu	plain, clearing
manangkarra	bush country
yuwurrku	mulga scrub, thick mulga scrub (=yuurrku)
mulyu-pakarnu	mulga scrub, thick mulga scrub
jirrijirrirnpa	mulga scrub, thick mulga scrub
walyiri	soft, sandy ground
nyinnga	poor, dry country
kuwarla	poor, dry country
mamingirri	poor, dry country
jilja	sandhill, sandy country (= [E] jitja)
warntarli-warntarli	reticulate dunes
yilyampuru (incl. [E])	large sandhill
ngalyarrpa [Y]	1. sandhill  2. big well-built solid person
ngalyarrpa-marramarra	multiple sandhill country
ngalyarrkarra	"in sand hills"
jarralyku	floodplain (where wulpayi-wulpayi is found)
pati	1. hard ground  2. blunt -- of spear, axe
pati-pati	hard (=kala)

0.1 SOIL AND NATURAL RESOURCES (other than water)
walya	earth, ground, dirt, soil, sand
walya-walya	brown, ground coloured
nyarnturrji	lump of earth, clod
nganjurrngu	mud
yakiri	mud
karlpaja [E]	mud
jurdu	dust, dust cloud (= [E] jurtu)
jilyi	dust cloud
yunmurntu	bulldust, powdery ground
rduyu-karri-mi (iV)	to rise -- of dust cloud (jilyi)
warrji	pebble, gravel, grain of sand
marlkalypa	pebble, gravel, grain of sand
jarra-jarra [E]	1. pebble, gravel, grain of sand  2. name of Jarrah Jarrah Range, near Hansen River
larri-larri [E]	pebble, gravel, grain of sand
julpurrpa	pile of sand
panma	flat stone -- as for grinding, mortar
jurnti	limestone (=jurntu)
jurntu	limestone, limestone country, raised area of ground (=jurnti)
yarltiri	1. quartz  2. white, blonde
karlji	white pipe-clay, kaolin  (=kartji [E])
ngunju-ngunju	white ochre, used particularly by women in mourning and yawalyu
karntawarra	1. yellow ochre  2. ritual fight carried out as part of funeral ceremonies
karntawarra-karntawarra	1. yellow  2. yellow ochre
kurrunjuru	red ochre -- found in Sandover Creek
yurlpa	red ochre
yurlpu	red ochre -- found at Banka Banka,  bright red ochre (= [Y] yurlpa)
karrku	dark red ochre -- found around Mt Stanley, soft ochre
karrkurr-karrkurr-katirni (tV)	to crumble or fracture by pressing on
karrkurr-karrkurr-nga-rni (tV)	to chomp -- as on bone

walaya (Pupanyi)	sea
mangkuru	1. plain  2. sea, sea water
jikaya	1. sea  2. Lake Woods

layirlayi	1. greying hair, old man with greying hair  2. fleecy cloud  3. dead leaves on a tree
karrpa	thorax
karrpakarrpa	along side of, nearby -- as of sandhill, ridge
kultu	1. thorax  2. shaft of spear  3. side of an object
puturlu	1. back, spine  2. convex or curved surface of certain wooden implements  3. 'jump-up', 
undulation in the ground
ngarnkirri	1. eyebrow  (= milpirimpiri)  2. steep wall-like bank of creek or river dug away by flood waters, ground dug 
out by water erosion

wirliya	1. foot  2. hind foot of quadruped  3. track

yilara	1. muscle  2. grain of wood
pinti	1. skin  2. bark
jalyirrpa	1. hymen  2. leaf  3. playing card (= parlpirrpa)

Compiled by David Nash at the Warlpiri Literature Production Centre, Inc., 1983-84.

Back to Warlpiri page.

Back to ethnogeography links page.

© 1997