Last changed 4 March 2021

References about Warumungu language 
or references in linguistics works -- 
published and unpublished

Ordered by year, and alphabetically by author within each year.

Send additions and corrections to the compiler, David Nash.

Papulu Apparr-kari Aboriginal Corporation (Barkly Region Aboriginal Languages Centre) is the main contact for Warumungu language information; including an online shop.  Contact:

Papulu Apparr-kari Aboriginal Corporation
PO Box 1108, Tennant Creek NT 0861
ph. (08)8962 3270, fax (08)8962 1380
The primary grammatical reference is Simpson 2002 

See also Heath & Simpson 1982.  The published dictionary is Disbray et al 2005.

Anyinginyi Apparr, the journal of Papulu Apparrkari, had articles in Warumungu.

See also is a partially complementary list of song references, non-linguistic references, and of films and video recordings.

Hint: To find a particular author's name, or key term, use your Web browser's Find command.

Howitt, AW. 1889. Further notes on the Australian class systems. Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 18,31-70 * 'The Waramunga type' map between pages 31 and 32, pp. 43–46 : tabulates 'class names' (subsections) * follows mention in Howitt 1885 listed in Warumungu non-language references
Gillen, F.J. 1894-98. [word list, in] Notes on some manners and customs of (Australian) Aborigines, 1894-98. 5 vol. ms. folio notebooks. Includes pages 834-841 "(comparative table of 200 words, English-Arunta, Kaitish, Waramangu, Chingili, Umbaia, Gnanji)". University of Adelaide Barr-Smith Library Special Collections.
Spencer and Gillen notes during several months at Tennant Creek OTS * see publications listed in Warumungu non-language references
Stanner, WEH. 1934 notebooks. Deposited at AIATSIS. * see 1979 microfiche publication
'Murranghi'. Abos as mimics. [letter] Northern Standard (Darwin), 7 August 1934, p. 8. * 'In the latter 80's … '  '… eating wild currants called by the Warra Moonga and Wumbire abos "manna good you"…' sc. marnukuju 'conkerberry' / 'All abos. are good mimics, probably owing to the prevalence of sign language.'
Capell, A. 1952-53 [Warumungu sound recordings, Phillip Creek.]  Man singing Warumungu Yam song (50:44 to 51:21).  Kunapa Urrundula Winggara [text] (51:50 to 52:45).  AIATSIS archive CAPELL_A01 - 00310A.
Capell, A. 1952. The Wailbri through their own eyes. Oceania 23.2,110-132. * pp.114-5: table comparing kinship terms in Warlpiri (Yuendumu), Warlpiri (Birrindudu, from Berndt) and Warumungu (Spencer and Gillen).
Capell, A. 1953. Notes on the Waramunga language. Oceania 23, 296-311. * from interviews at Phillip Creek 1952
Hale, Kenneth L. 1959. Warramunga [Warumungu] notes. Sandy Nandy and George Bruce [sc. Booth] from Tennant Creek. * AIATSIS MS 863. Part 1: 465 l. holograph (photocopy). Part 2: xxii+79pp. ts. mimeo. * Part 2 l. 1-66 repeats l. 15-465 of Part 1 * tape Nos A4557?9
also Hale's 1959 notes and recordings of Wambaya and of Warlmanpa were elicited in part through Warumungu
Finlayson, H.H.. 1961. On central Australian mammals. Part IV. The distribution and status of central Australian species. Records of the South Australian Museum 14.1 (1961), 141- * includes mammal names such as page 173 "Ijibudoo, Witchiburrt" [sc. Witchiburri ?] of the Warramunga" for Pseudomys (Leggadina) waitei Troughton 1932
Capell, A. 1962. Waljbiri grammar, p.15-50 in Some Linguistic Types in Australia. Handbook of Australian Languages, Part II. Oceania Linguistic Monographs No. 7. Sydney: University of Sydney. [reprints Capell, 1952]
Chakravarti, P. n.d. WaRumunu material. [Transcription of AIAS tapes A287ab, 288ab, 289a; recorded July 22 - December 25, 1966.] Unpublished ts. Field tapes 287a-301b. Held at AIATSIS.
Chakravarti, P. 1967. A report on WaRumunu. 8pp. mimeo. A.I.A.S. Doc 69/839. Ms522
Capell, A. 1969. Économie des changements phonétiques en Australie. Word 25.1-2-3, Part Three (April-August-December),39-58. [Warlpiri pp.49-51 Warumungu p.51]
Hale, Kenneth L. 1973. Person marking in Walbiri, 308-344 in A Festschrift for Morris Halle, ed. by Stephen R. Anderson & Paul Kiparsky. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc.
Heath, Jeffrey. 1977. Warramunga grammatical notes. Warramunga - English wordlist. Warramunga texts. Unpublished ts. Field tapes "65,66". Held at AIAS.
Chadwick, Neil. 1978. Markers of ergative and transitive function: some Australian examples. Working Papers in Language & Linguistics 7,1-7.
Nash, David. 1978. Warumungu stop alternations. ms., M.I.T.
Nash, David. 1978. Flora terms in the Warlpiri, Warlmanpa, and Warumungu languages. iii+16pp. ts. Tennant Creek, August 1978. [Updated as machine-readable database file, with Alyawarr and Kaytej added. Work in progress.]
Busby, P.A. A classificatory study of phonemic systems in Australian Aboriginal languages. xii+239pp. MA thesis, ANU. (Part I published in 1980.) * Uses Hale’s recordings and notes of Warumungu and other languages)
Simpson, Jane. 1979. Length alternations in Warumungu. Unpublished ts., M.I.T.
Stanner, W.E.H. 1979. Report on field work in north central and north Australia 1934-5. 102pp. ts. Microfiche No. 1. ISBN 0855750936 Canberra: AIAS. [includes Warlmanpa vocabulary, ngurlu]
Simpson, Jane. 1980. Preliminary vocabulary of the Warumungu language. Based on work by P. Chakravarti, K. Hale, J. Heath, D. Nash and J. Simpson. 51pp. ts. MIT. * later digital version item 0055 in ASEDA
Austin, Peter. 1981. Switch-reference in Australia. Language 57,309-34. * compares many languages including Warumungu
Nash, David. (ed.) 1981. Sourcebook for Central Australian Languages. Compiled by Kathy Menning. Pilot edition, November. Alice Springs: I.A.D. Machine-readable version deposited at ASEDA, AIATSIS, including vocabularies in Microsoft Excel spreadsheet.
Nash, David & Jane Simpson. 1981. "No-name" in central Australia, pp. 165-77 in Papers from the Parasession on Language and Behavior , ed. by Carrie S. Masek et al. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.
Evans, Nicholas. 1982. A Learner's Guide to Warumungu. Alice Springs: Institute for Aboriginal Development.
Heath, Jeffrey and Jane Simpson. 1982. Warumungu sketch grammar: draft 4. Cambridge, Mass.: Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University. 216 p. Typescript (photocopy). AIAS MS 1860
Nash, David. 1982. "Prospects for Warumungu Literacy", Insitute for Aboriginal Development, October 1981. Abridged version published in Aboriginal Languages Association Newsletter No. 3, May 1982:9-10.
Nash, David. 1982. An etymological note on Warlpiri kurdungurlu,pp.141-59 in Languages of kinship in Aboriginal Australia, ed. by Jeffrey Heath, Francesca Merlan and Alan Rumsey. Oceania Linguistic Monographs No. 24. Sydney: University of Sydney.
Wafer, J. Warumungu picture vocabulary. illus. by J. Carter. Alice Springs: IAD. * From unpublished field notes by P. Chakravarti, K. Hale, J. Heath, D. Nash and J. Simpson; orthography developed by J. Simpson; first published in 1980
See Chadwick 1986.
Glasgow, David. 1984. Report on survey of the central Northern Territory, pp.113-152 in Language Survey, ed. by J. Hudson & N. Pym. Work Papers of SIL-AAB Series B Volume 11. June 1984. xi+167pp. Darwin: Summer Institute of Linguistics Australian Aborigines Branch. ISBN 0 86892 312 5
Simpson, Jane. 1985. How Warumungu people express new concepts. Lang. Cent. Aust. 4,12-25.
Simpson, Jane. 1985. The expression of new concepts in Warumungu. Paper presented to annual meeting of the Australian Linguistics Society, 30 August 1985, Brisbane. Programme and handouts: [49-52] AIAS MS 4130
Chadwick, Neil. 1984. Reasons for language decline in the east central Northern Territory, Australia. Working Papers in Language & Linguistics 18 (December 1984) [published 1986?], 1-37.
Simpson, Jane & M. Withgott. 1986. Pronominal clitic clusters and templates. [Template Morphology], pp.149-174 in The Syntax of Pronominal Clitics edited by Hagit Borer. Syntax and Semantics , Volume 19. Academic Press.
Simpson, Jane. 1987. Language Maintenance in Australia: The language situation in Tennant Creek. Linguistics Department Seminar, University of Pittsburgh, 25 March 1987. Notice in NL-KR list, Vol. 02 No. 017
Hendrie, Timothy R. 1990. Initial apicals in Nuclear Pama-Nyungan, pp.15-77 in Studies in Comparative Pama-Nyungan, ed. by D. Tryon & G.N. O'Grady. Pacific Linguistics C-111. xxii+279pp.
Nash, David. 1990. Patrilects of the Warumungu and Warlmanpa and their neighbours, pp.209-220 in Language and History: Essays in honour of Luise Hercus, ed. by Peter Austin, R.M.W. Dixon, Tom Dutton and Isobel White. Pacific Linguistics C-116. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, RSPacS, ANU.
Simpson, Jane. 1990. A note on an inversion marker in Warumungu pronominal clitics, pp.259-269 in Language and History: Essays in honour of Luise Hercus, ed. by Peter Austin, R.M.W. Dixon, Tom Dutton and Isobel White. Pacific Linguistics C-116. Canberra: Linguistics, RSPacS, ANU.
Whitehead, Oscar.1990. Which way is up? A preliminary comparative study of compass point direction terms in Australian languages. Honours thesis, University of Melbourne, December 1990. v+98+xi pp.
Fishman, Joshua A. 1992. Prospects for Reversing Language Shift (RLS) in Australia: evidence from its Aboriginal and immigrant languages. Vox 6,48-62. Reprinted from his Reversing Language Shift: theoretical and empirical foundations of assistance to threatened languages (Clevedon ; Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters, 1991) * mentions Warlmanpa, Warumungu
Gillespie, Karen. 1991. McLaren Creek. The Children, and their English. BA (Hons) thesis, Department of Linguistics, The Faculties, ANU. 179pp. (Appendices pp.98-179)
Nash, David. 1992. An Australian kinship affix *-rti. Memorial volume for Steve Johnson, ed. by Nicholas Evans & Cliff Goddard. Australian Journal of Linguistics 12.1,123-144.
Warumungu to English Dictionary. Draft - January 1995. Sponsored by Papulu Apparrkari & NT Education Department.  Formatted & produced by Hugh Belfrage, NT Education Department linguist, Barkly Region. Limited distribution photocopy. vi+81pp.
Nash, David. 1997. Comparative flora terminology of the central Northern Territory. Chapter 12, pp.187-206 in Archaeology and Linguistics. Aboriginal Australia in Global Perspective, edited by Patrick McConvell & Nicholas Evans. Melbourne: Oxford UP. * grew out of a conference, 8-12 July 1991, NTU, Darwin
Simpson, Jane. 1997. Warumungu version of 'Greedy Girl', in Language Tutorial, Spring meeting of the Language Association of Great Britain (LAGB), Edinburgh, 6-9 April.
Simpson, Jane H. 1997. Perceptions of meteorology in some Aboriginal languages, pp.20-28 in Windows on Meteorology: Australian Perspective ed. by Eric K. Webb. ISBN 0-643-06038-3 Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing.
The kind snake. Written and illustrated by Year 8/9 ESL students from Tennant Creek High School. Tennant Creek Town Council. ISBN 064634529X  27pp. * includes 4 Warumungu words: Jurnkurakurr, manu, takka, yama
Anyinginyi Marla Warumungu-ngara. Centre for Australian Languages and Linguistics (CALL), Batchelor College, Alice Springs. Illustrated A4 booklet. * 'These plants were collected by Warumungu CALL students, with Bunny Napurrula and Annie Phillips Napurrula. They were collected on August 4th 1997 ... Some plants were collected at Karguru area in Tennant Creek on August August 6th 1997. These plants were identified by David Albrecht..."
Simpson, Jane. 1998. Warumungu morphology, pp.707-736 in Handbook of Morphology, edited by A. Spencer & A. Zwicky. Basil Blackwell Ltd: Oxford.
Language of the Month. Warumungu. Voice of the Land [FATSIL newsletter] 9(June),6-8. * Also Ngoonjook (Batchelor College magazine)
Simpson, Jane (comp.) 1999. Jurrkkul munjuku Warumunguku: A Learner's Guide to Warumungu. * Draft compiled for Papulu Apparrkari, 3 July 1997. 91pp. * revised version published 2002
Global Recordings Network. Audio recordings available in Warumungu :
LLL 1 Beginning with GOD (C80060) - Book 1 of an audio-visual series with Bible stories of Adam, Noah, Job, Abraham.
LLL 3 Victory through GOD (C75358) - Book 3 of an audio-visual series with Bible stories of Joshua, Deborah, Gideon, Samson.
Wanyanta Angi Nyinjari Wiparpa [Where will you spend Eternity] (C80693) - Compilations of Christian music, songs or hymns.. * 'These recordings are designed for evangelism and basic Bible teaching to bring the gospel message to people who are not literate or are from oral cultures, particularly unreached people groups.'
Papulu Apparrkari Annual Report 2000-01. Tennant Creek: Papulu Apparrkari. 29pp.
Simpson, Jane (comp.) 2002. A Learner's Guide to Warumungu. Mirlamirlajinjjiki Warumunguku apparrka. Alice Springs: IAD Press (PO Box 2531, Alice Springs NT 0871, ph. 08-89511311). ISBN 1864650346. x+198pp. * launch reported in Land Rights News 14.1(2002),18
2002. Stories and Language work from Advanced English and Vernacular Literacy Students 2000-2002. Institute for Aboriginal Development, Alice Springs. 61pp. Introduction by S. Disbray, December 2002.
2002. ALI Indigenous Program Report. By Advanced English and Vernacular Literacy students. Institute for Aboriginal Development, Alice Springs. 11pp.
Comrie, Bernard. 2003. Warumungu. Page 359, Volume 4, International Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Second Edition. Ed. by William Frawley. OUP USA.
Simpson, Jane and Samantha Disbray. 2005. The Expression of Possession in Wumpurrarni English, Tennant Creek’. Monash University Linguistics Papers 4.2,65–85. * Evolving ways of expressing possession in the Tennant Creek Area. Paper given at the Language Contact, Hybrids and New Varieties Symposium (Monash University, Melbourne, Australia 3-4 Sept 2004). * abstract
Disbray, Samantha (compiler). 2005. Warumungu Picture Dictionary. Includes audio CD of readings by Dianne Nampin Stokes. Alice Springs: IAD Press (Institute for Aboriginal Development). 192 pages. ISBN 186465 060 5 * launched at Nyinkka Nyunyu Art and Culture Centre in Tennant Creek by the Member for Barkly, the Hon. Elliot McAdam at 10:30am on Tuesday 21 June 2005 * 'Fifth title for picture dictionary series', National Indigenous Times 83
Learning Warumungu : a basic introduction. (CD title 'Learn Warumungu') November 2006. Tennant Creek: Papulu Apparr-kari Aboriginal Corporation. * Director program in Windows and Mac OS X versions, demonstrating Warumungu sounds; with two jigsaw games and a memory puzzle.
Judy Nakkamarra Nixon. Apparr Wartti Appi Julkki. Story of a long journey. 6 pages. Tennant Creek: Papulu Apparr-kari Aboriginal Corporation. Bilingual text in Warumungu and English. With audio PDF on CD-ROM.
Rosemary Plummer Narrurlu. Ngurtina. 6 pages. Tennant Creek: Papulu Apparr-kari Aboriginal Corporation. Bilingual text in Warumungu and English. With audio PDF on CD-ROM. * Ngurtina is a traditional Warumungu story of the thirsty sand frog.
Disbray, Samantha. 2009. More than one way to catch a frog: a study of children's discourse in an Australian contact language. PhD thesis submitted to Department of Linguistics and Applied Linguistics, University of Melbourne.
Judy Nakkamarra Nixon. Appar kujarra kirriji kari. / Edible Bush Seeds. 7 pages. Tennant Creek: Papulu Apparr-kari Aboriginal Corporation. Bilingual text in Warumungu and English. With audio PDF on CD-ROM.
Disbray, Samantha. 2014. Semantic case marking in Wumpurrarni English (Tennant Creek). Presented at Australian Languages In Contact Since Colonisation. 6-7 March 2014, Seminar Room 1.02 (Sir Roland Wilson Building), ANU.
Pinarra Aku
Australian kids are learning the Warumungu language with a radio cockatoo’s help. Posted 3 April 2015 11:27 GMT
Patrick Nelson. 2016. Rare voice tapes speak life into endangered language. CDU Origins 1/2016 Jan 2016, pages 24-5 * Prith Chakravarti, Samantha Disbray
Osgarby, David, Mitchell Browne, and Thomas Ennever. 2018. Comparing form, ordering and neutralisations of complex bound pronouns in Ngumpin-Yapa languages. Poster presented Wednesday 7 February, CoEDL Fest 2018. * Walmajarri Ngardi Jaru Wanyjirra Gurindji Mudburra Warlmanpa Warlpiri Warumungu *
Disbray, Samantha. 2019. Language learning in the desert. Presented 24 May 2019 12:00pm–1:00pm in Second Language Cluster Seminars, School of Languages and Cultures,The University of Queensland
Meakins, Felicity, Samantha Disbray & Jane Simpson. 2020. Which MATter matters in PATtern borrowing? the direction of case syncretisms. Morphology * paper presented at the Ngumpin-Yapa workshop in Brisbane (10–11 August 2017) and the Matter Borrowing vs Pattern Borrowing in Morphology workshop at the Societas Linguistica Europaea conference in Zürich (10–13 September 2017) * Gurindji Kriol and Wumpurrarni English
Nash, David. 2020. Wheeled vehicle terminology in Australian languages, pages 214–234 in 'Part 3: Language in historical and cultural context' in More than mere words: Essays on language and linguistics in honour of Peter Sutton, edited by Paul Monaghan and Michael Walsh (and Julie Finlayson Frances Morphy). ISBN 978 1743057551 Adelaide: Wakefield Press.
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